Ipsita Mandal
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Short CV
Ipsita Mandal received her Bachelors degree in Physics from Jadavpur Universty in 2005.Subsequently, she joined the HarishChandra Research lnstitute, Allahabad, where she received her MSc in 2008 and PhD in String Theory in 2011 under the supervision of Prof. Ashoke Sen.
From 2011 to 2013, she worked as a Postdoctoral Research Scholar in Condensed Matter Theory in University of California Los Angeles, under the mentorship of Prof. Sudip Chakravarty.
Then she spent 20132016 as a Postdoctoral Fellow in Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.
Within the period sep 2016 to Dec 2016, she worked in the group of Prof. Daniel Loss and Prof. Jelena Klinovaja in the University of Basel.
From Dec 2016, She joined IITKharagpur, India, as an Assistant Professor in Physics.
Publications
Show all abstracts.1.  Majorana fermions in quasionedimensional systems with inplane magnetic fields 
Vardan Kaladzhyan, Julien Despres, Ipsita Mandal, and Cristina Bena. arXiv:1611.09367 [condmat.meshall]
We study the Majorana bound states arising in quasionedimensional systems with Rashba spinorbit coupling in the presence of an inplane Zeeman magnetic field. Using two different methods, first, the numerical diagonalization of the tightbinding Hamiltonian, and second, finding the singular points of the Hamiltonian (see Refs. [14]), we obtain the topological phase diagram for these systems as a function of the chemical potential and the magnetic field, and we demonstrate the consistency of these two methods. By introducing disorder into these systems we confirm that the states with even number of Majorana pairs are not topologically protected. Finally, we show that a formal calculation of the Z2 topological invariants recovers correctly the parity of the number of Majorana bound states pairs, and it is thus fully consistent with the phase diagrams of the disordered systems.
 
2.  Scaling behaviour and superconducting instability in anisotropic nonFermi liquids 
Ipsita Mandal arXiv:1609.00020 [condmat.strel]
We study the scaling behaviour of the optical conductivity (σ), free energy density (F) and shear viscosity of the quantum critical point associated with spin density wave phase transition for a twodimensional metallic system with $C_2$ symmetry. A nonFermi liquid behaviour emerges at two pairs of isolated points on the Fermi surface due to the coupling of a bosonic order parameter to fermionic excitations at those socalled "hotspots". We find that near the hotspots, σ and F obey the scalings expected for such an anisotropic system, and the directiondependent viscosity to entropy density ratio is not a universal number due to the anisotropy. Lastly, we also estimate the effect of the fermionboson coupling at the hotspots on superconducting instabilities.
 
3.  UV/IR Mixing In NonFermi Liquids: HigherLoop Corrections In Different Energy Ranges 
Ipsita Mandal arXiv:1608.06642 [condmat.strel]
We revisit the Isingnematic quantum critical point with an mdimensional Fermi surface by applying a dimensional regularization scheme, introduced in Phys. Rev. B 92, 035141 (2015). We compute the contribution from twoloop and threeloop diagrams in the intermediate energy range controlled by a crossover scale. We find that for m=2, the corrections continue to be oneloop exact for both the infrared and intermediate energy regimes.
 
4.  Superconducting instability in nonFermi liquids 
Ipsita Mandal Phys. Rev. B 94, 115138 (2016)
We use renormalization group (RG) analysis and dimensional regularization techniques to study potential superconductivityinducing fourfermion interactions in systems with critical Fermi surfaces of general dimensions (m) and codimensions (d−m), arising as a result of quasiparticle interaction with a gapless Isingnematic order parameter. These are examples of nonFermi liquid states in d spatial dimensions. Our formalism allows us to treat the corresponding zerotemperature lowenergy effective theory in a controlled approximation close to the upper critical dimension $d=d_c(m)$. The fixed points are identified from the RG flow equations, as functions of d and m. We find that the flow towards the nonFermi liquid fixed point is preempted by Cooper pair formation for both the physical cases of (d=3,m=2) and (d=2,m=1). In fact, there is a strong enhancement of superconductivity by the order parameter fluctuations at the quantum critical point.
 
5.  SuperGCA connection with tensionless strings: Addendum to "SuperGCA from N=(2,2) superVirasoro" [Phys. Lett. B 754 (2016) 1952000] 
Ipsita Mandal Physics Letters B 760 (2016) 832834
n this addendum, we consider the connection between certain 2d superGCA, obtained from the parametric contractions of 2d SCFTs, which can describe the constraint algebra of null spinning strings.
 
6.  Hyperscaling violation at the Isingnematic quantum critical point in two dimensional metals 
Andreas Eberlein, Ipsita Mandal, and Subir Sachdev. Phys. Rev. B 94, 045133 (2016)
Understanding optical conductivity data in the optimally doped cuprates in the framework of quantum criticality requires a strongly coupled quantum critical metal which violates hyperscaling. In the simplest scaling framework, hyperscaling violation can be characterized by a single nonzero exponent θ, so that in a spatially isotropic state in d spatial dimensions, the specific heat scales with temperature as $T^{(d−θ)/z}$, and the optical conductivity scales with frequency as $ω^{(d−θ−2)/z}$ for ω≫T, where z is the dynamic critical exponent defined by the scaling of the fermion response function transverse to the Fermi surface. We study the Isingnematic critical point, using the controlled dimensional regularization method proposed by Dalidovich and Lee [Phys. Rev. B 88, 245106 (2013)]. We find that hyperscaling is violated, with θ=1 in d=2. We expect that similar results apply to Fermi surfaces coupled to gauge fields in d=2.
 
7.  Geometrical mutual information at the tricritical point of the twodimensional BlumeCapel model 
Ipsita Mandal, Stephen Inglis, Roger G. Melko J. Stat. Mech. (2016) 073105
The spin1 classical Blume–Capel model on a square lattice is known to exhibit a finitetemperature phase transition described by the tricritical Ising CFT in 1 + 1 spacetime dimensions. This phase transition can be accessed with classical Monte Carlo simulations, which, via a replicatrick calculation, can be used to study the shapedependence of the classical Rényi entropies for a torus divided into two cylinders. From the second Rényi entropy, we calculate the geometrical mutual information (GMI) introduced by Stéphan et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 127204) and use it to extract a numerical estimate for the value of the central charge near the tricritical point. By comparing to the known CFT result, c = 7/10, we demonstrate how this type of GMI calculation can be used to estimate the position of the tricritical point in the phase diagram.
 
8.  Cold atoms in U(3) gauge potentials 
Ipsita Mandal, Atri Bhattacharya Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 2
We explore the effects of artificial U(3) gauge potentials on ultracold atoms. We study background gauge fields with both nonconstant and constant Wilson loops around plaquettes, obtaining the energy spectra in each case. The scenario of metal–insulator transition for irrational fluxes is also examined. Finally, we discuss the effect of such a gauge potential on the superfluid–insulator transition for bosonic ultracold atoms.
 
9.  SuperGCA from N=(2,2) SuperVirasoro 
Ipsita Mandal, Ahmed Rayyan Physics Letters B 754, 195 (2016)
We derive the extended Supersymmetric Galilean Conformal Algebra (SGCA) in two spacetime dimensions by the method of group contraction on 2d N=(2,2) superconformal algebra. Both the parent and daughter algebras are infinitedimensional. We provide the representation theory of the algebra. We adopt a superspace formalism for the SGCA fields, allowing us to write them down in a compact notation as components of superfields. We also discuss correlation functions, short supermultiplets and null states.
 
10.  Counting Majorana bound states using complex momenta 
Ipsita Mandal Condensed Matter Physics, 2016, vol. 19, No. 3, 33703
Recently, the connection between Majorana fermions bound to defects in arbitrary dimensions, and complex momentum roots of the vanishing determinant of the corresponding bulk Bogoliubovde Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian, has been established (EPL, 2015, 110, 67005). Based on this understanding, a formula has been proposed to count the number (n) of the zero energy Majorana bound states, which is related to the topological phase of the system. In this paper, we provide a proof of the counting formula and we apply this formula to a variety of 1d and 2d models belonging to the classes BDI, DIII and D. We show that we can successfully chart out the topological phase diagrams. Studying these examples also enables us to explicitly observe the correspondence between these complex momentum solutions in the Fourier space, and the localized Majorana fermion wavefunctions in the position space. Finally, we corroborate the fact that for systems with a chiral symmetry, these solutions are the socalled "exceptional points", where two or more eigenvalues of the complexified Hamiltonian coalesce.
 
11.  Exceptional points for chiral Majorana fermions in arbitrary dimensions 
Ipsita Mandal EPL, 110 (2015) 67005
Certain real parameters of a Hamiltonian, when continued to complex values, can give rise to singular points called exceptional points (EP's), where two or more eigenvalues coincide and the complexified Hamiltonian becomes nondiagonalizable. We show that for a generic ddimensional topological superconductor/superfluid with a chiral symmetry, one can find EP's associated with the chiral zero energy Majorana fermions bound to a topological defect/edge. Exploiting the chiral symmetry, we propose a formula for counting the number (n) of such chiral zero modes. We also establish the connection of these solutions to the Majorana fermion wavefunctions in the position space. The imaginary parts of these momenta are related to the exponential decay of the wavefunctions localized at the defect/edge, and hence their change of sign at a topological phase transition point signals the appearance or disappearance of a chiral Majorana zero mode. Our analysis thus explains why topological invariants like the winding number, defined for the corresponding Hamiltonian in the momentum space for a defectless system with periodic boundary conditions, captures the number of admissible Majorana fermion solutions for the position space Hamiltonian with defect(s). Finally, we conclude that EP's cannot be associated with the Majorana fermion wavefunctions for systems with no chiral symmetry, though one can use our formula for counting n, using complex k solutions where the determinant of the corresponding BdG Hamiltonian vanishes.
 
12.  Exceptional point description of onedimensional chiral topological superconductors/superfluids in BDI class 
Ipsita Mandal, Sumanta Tewari Physica E: Lowdimensional Systems and Nanostructures 79, 180 (2016)
We show that certain singularities of the Hamiltonian in the complex wave vector space can be used to identify topological quantum phase transitions for 1D chiral topological superconductors/superfluids in the BDI class. These singularities fall into the category of the socalled exceptional points (EP's) studied in the context of nonHermitian Hamiltonians describing open quantum systems. We also propose a generic formula in terms of the properties of the EP 's to quantify the exact number of Majorana zero modes in a particular chiral topological superconducting phase, given the values of the parameters appearing in the Hamiltonian. This formula serves as an alternative to the familiar integer (ZZ) winding number invariant characterizing topological superconductor/superfluid phases in the chiral BDI class.
 
13.  Pairing in halffilled Landau level 
Zhiqiang Wang, Ipsita Mandal, Suk Bum Chung, Sudip Chakravarty Annals of Physics, 351, 727 (2014)
Pairing of composite fermions in halffilled Landau level state is reexamined by solving the BCS gap equation with full frequency dependent current–current interactions. Our results show that there can be a continuous transition from the Halperin–Lee–Read state to a chiral odd angular momentum Cooper pair state for shortrange contact interaction. This is at odds with the previously established conclusion of first order pairing transition, in which the low frequency effective interaction was assumed for the entire frequency range. We find that even if the low frequency effective interaction is repulsive, it is compensated by the high frequency regime, which is attractive. We construct the phase diagrams and show that ℓ=1 angular momentum channel is quite different from higher angular momenta ℓ≥3. Remarkably, the full frequency dependent analysis applied to the bilayer Hall system with a total filling fraction View the source ν=1/2+1/2 is quantitatively changed from the previously established results but not qualitatively.
 
14.  UV/IR mixing in NonFermi Liquids 
Ipsita Mandal, SungSik Lee Phys. Rev. B 92, 035141 (2015)
We study lowenergy effective field theories for nonFermi liquids with Fermi surfaces of general dimensions and codimensions. When the dimension of Fermi surface is greater than one, lowenergy particlehole excitations remain strongly coupled with each other across the entire Fermi surface. In this case, even the observables that are local in the momentum space (such as the Green's functions) become dependent on the size of the Fermi surface in singular ways, resulting in a UV/IR mixing. By tuning the dimension and codimension of the Fermi surface independently, we find perturbative nonFermi liquid fixed points controlled by both UV/IR mixing and interactions.
 
15.  Higher angular momentum pairing from transverse gauge interactions 
Suk Bum Chung, Ipsita Mandal, S. Raghu, Sudip Chakravarty Phys. Rev. B 88, 045127 (2013)
In this paper, we study superconductivity of nonrelativistic fermions at finitedensity coupled to a transverse U(1) gauge field, with the effective interaction including the Landaudamping. This model, first studied by Holstein, Norton, and Pincus [Phys. Rev B, 8, 2649 (1973)] has been known as an example of a nonFermi liquid, {\i.e.} a metallic state in which the decay rate of a quasiparticle is large compared to the characteristic quasiparticle energy; other examples of the nonFermi liquid includes the 2d electron gas in a magnetic field at ν=1/2 and the normal state of optimally doped cuprate superconductors. Our study thus addresses the question of whether or not nonFermi liquids, like Fermi liquids, are unstable towards the formation of superconductivity.The results are (i) the nonFermi liquid is stable against superconductivity below a critical gauge coupling, (ii) above this critical coupling, the ground state is an unconventional superconductor with angular momentum ℓ≥2. Our results are obtained from a solution of the DysonNambu equation. Note that in this problem there is a quantum critical point between a nonFermi liquid state and the superconducting state, as the critical coupling is nonzero. This is in contrast to a weakly coupled metal, which exhibits superconductivity for infinitesimally weak interaction regardless of its sign.
 
16.  Amplitude mode of the ddensity wave state and its relevance to highTc cuprates 
Jay D. Sau, Ipsita Mandal, Sumanta Tewari, Sudip Chakravarty Phys. Rev. B 87, 224503 (2013)
We calculate the spectrum of the amplitude mode, the analog of the Higgs mode in high energy physics, for the ddensity wave (DDW) state proposed to describe the pseudogap phase of the high Tc cuprates. Even though the state breaks translational symmetry by a lattice spacing and is described by a particlehole singlet order parameter at the wave vector q=Q=(π,π), remarkably, we find that the amplitude mode spectrum can have peaks at both q=(0,0) and q=Q=(π,π); we shall lattice spacing to unity. In general, the spectrum is nonuniversal, and, depending on the microscopic parameters, can have one or two peaks in the Brillouin zone, signifying existence of two kinds of magnetic excitations. Our theory sheds important light on how multiple inelastic neutron peaks at different wave vectors can, in principle, arise even with an order parameter that condenses at Q=(π,π).
 
17.  Majorana zero modes in a quantum Ising chain with longerranged interactions 
Yuezhen Niu, Suk Bum Chung, ChenHsuan Hsu, Ipsita Mandal, S. Raghu, Sudip Chakravarty Phys. Rev. B 85, 035110 (2012)
A onedimensional Ising model in a transverse field can be mapped onto a system of spinless fermions with pwave superconductivity. In the weakcoupling BCS regime, it exhibits a zero energy Majorana mode at each end of the chain. Here, we consider a variation of the model, which represents a superconductor with longer ranged kinetic energy and pairing amplitudes, as is likely to occur in more realistic systems. It possesses a richer zero temperature phase diagram and has several quantum phase transitions. From an exact solution of the model these phases can be classified according to the number of Majorana zero modes of an open chain: 0, 1, or 2 at each end. The model posseses a multicritical point where phases with 0, 1, and 2 Majorana end modes meet. The number of Majorana modes at each end of the chain is identical to the topological winding number of the Anderson's pseudospin vector that describes the BCS Hamiltonian. The topological classification of the phases requires a unitary timereversal symmetry to be present. When this symmetry is broken, only the number of Majorana end modes modulo 2 can be used to distinguish two phases. In one of the regimes, the wave functions of the two phase shifted Majorana zero modes decays exponentially in space but but in an oscillatory manner. The wavelength of oscillation is identical to the asymptotic connected spinspin correlation of the XYmodel in a transverse field to which our model is dual.
 
18.  Logarithmic Corrections to N=4 and N=8 Black Hole Entropy: A One Loop Test of Quantum Gravity 
Shamik Banerjee, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Ipsita Mandal, Ashoke Sen JHEP 1111:143,2011
We compute logarithmic corrections to the entropy of supersymmetric extremal black holes in N=4 and N=8 supersymmetric string theories and find results in perfect agreement with the microscopic results. In particular these logarithmic corrections vanish for quarter BPS black holes in N=4 supersymmetric theories, but has a finite coefficient for 1/8 BPS black holes in the N=8 supersymmetric theory. On the macroscopic side these computations require evaluating the one loop determinant of massless fields around the near horizon geometry, and include, in particular, contributions from dynamical four dimensional gravitons propagating in the loop. Thus our analysis provides a test of one loop quantum gravity corrections to the black hole entropy, or equivalently of the AdS2/CFT1 correspondence. We also extend our analysis to N=2 supersymmetric STU model and make a prediction for the logarithmic correction to the black hole entropy in that theory.
 
19.  Black Hole Microstate Counting and its Macroscopic Counterpart 
Ipsita Mandal, Ashoke Sen Class.Quant.Grav.27:214003,2010
We survey recent results on the exact dyon spectrum in a class of N=4 supersymmetric string theories, and discuss how the results can be understood from the macroscopic viewpoint using AdS_2/CFT_1 correspondence. The comparison between the microscopic and the macroscopic results includes power suppressed corrections to the entropy, the sign of the index, logarithmic corrections and also the twisted index measuring the distribution of discrete quantum numbers among the microstates.
 
20.  Supersymmetric Extension of GCA in 2d 
Ipsita Mandal JHEP 1011:018,2010
We derive the infinite dimensional Supersymmetric Galilean Conformal Algebra (SGCA) in the case of two spacetime dimensions by performing group contraction on 2d superconformal algebra. We also obtain the representations of the generators in terms of superspace coordinates. Here we find realisations of the SGCA by considering scaling limits of certain 2d SCFTs which are nonunitary and have their left and right central charges become large in magnitude and opposite in sign. We focus on the NeveuSchwarz sector of the parent SCFTs and develop, in parallel to the GCA studies recently in (hepth/0912.1090), the representation theory based on SGCA primaries, Ward identities for their correlation functions and their descendants which are null states.
 
21.  GCA in 2d 
Arjun Bagchi, Rajesh Gopakumar, Ipsita Mandal, Akitsugu Miwa JHEP 1008:004,2010
We make a detailed study of the infinite dimensional Galilean Conformal Algebra (GCA) in the case of two spacetime dimensions. Classically, this algebra is precisely obtained from a contraction of the generators of the relativistic conformal symmetry in 2d. Here we find quantum mechanical realisations of the (centrally extended) GCA by considering scaling limits of certain 2d CFTs. These parent CFTs are nonunitary and have their left and right central charges become large in magnitude and opposite in sign. We therefore develop, in parallel to the usual machinery for 2d CFT, many of the tools for the analysis of the quantum mechanical GCA. These include the representation theory based on GCA primaries, Ward identities for their correlation functions and a nonrelativistic Kac table. In particular, the null vectors of the GCA lead to differential equations for the four point function. The solution to these equations in the simplest case is explicitly obtained and checked to be consistent with various requirements.
 
22.  Supersymmetry, Localization and Quantum Entropy Function 
Nabamita Banerjee, Shamik Banerjee, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Ipsita Mandal, Ashoke Sen JHEP 1002:091,2010
AdS_2/CFT_1 correspondence leads to a prescription for computing the degeneracy of black hole states in terms of path integral over string fields living on the near horizon geometry of the black hole. In this paper we make use of the enhanced supersymmetries of the near horizon geometry and localization techniques to argue that the path integral receives contribution only from a special class of string field configurations which are invariant under a subgroup of the supersymmetry transformations. We identify saddle points which are invariant under this subgroup. We also use our analysis to show that the integration over infinite number of zero modes generated by the asymptotic symmetries of AdS_2 generate a finite contribution to the path integral.
 
23.  Supersymmetric Extension of Galilean Conformal Algebras 
Arjun Bagchi, Ipsita Mandal Phys.Rev.D80:086011,2009
The Galilean conformal algebra has recently been realised in the study of the nonrelativistic limit of the AdS/CFT conjecture. This was obtained by a systematic parametric group contraction of the parent relativistic conformal field theory. In this paper, we extend the analysis to include supersymmetry. We work at the level of the coordinates in superspace to construct the N=1 Super Galilean conformal algebra. One of the interesting outcomes of the analysis is that one is able to naturally extend the finite algebra to an infinite one. This looks structurally similar to the N=1 superconformal algebra in two dimensions, but is different. We also comment on the extension of our construction to cases of higher N.
 
24.  On Representations and Correlation Functions of Galilean Conformal Algebras 
Arjun Bagchi, Ipsita Mandal Phys.Lett.B675:393397,2009
Galilean Conformal Algebras (GCA) have been recently proposed as a different nonrelativistic limit of the AdS/CFT conjecture. In this note, we look at the representations of the GCA. We also construct explicitly the two and three point correlators in this nonrelativistic limit of CFT and comment on the differences with the relativistic case and also the more studied Schrodinger group.
 
25.  Black Hole Hair Removal 
Nabamita Banerjee, Ipsita Mandal, Ashoke Sen JHEP 0907:091,2009
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair,  degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
 
26.  Conformal Nonlinear Fluid Dynamics from Gravity in Arbitrary Dimensions 
Sayantani Bhattacharyya, R. Loganayagam, Ipsita Mandal, Shiraz Minwalla, Ankit Sharma JHEP 0812:116,2008
We generalize recent work to construct a map from the conformal Navier Stokes equations with holographically determined transport coefficients, in d spacetime dimensions, to the set of asymptotically locally AdS_{d+1} long wavelength solutions of Einstein's equations with a negative cosmological constant, for all d>2. We find simple explicit expressions for the stress tensor (slightly generalizing the recent result by Haack and Yarom (arXiv:0806.4602)), the full dual bulk metric and an entropy current of this strongly coupled conformal fluid, to second order in the derivative expansion, for arbitrary d>2. We also rewrite the well known exact solutions for rotating black holes in AdS_{d+1} space in a manifestly fluid dynamical form, generalizing earlier work in d=4. To second order in the derivative expansion, this metric agrees with our general construction of the metric dual to fluid flows.
 
27.  Critical properties of spherically symmetric black hole accretion in Schwarzschild geometry 
Ipsita Mandal, Arnab K. Ray, Tapas Kumar Das Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.378:14001406,2007
The stationary, spherically symmetric, polytropic and inviscid accretion flow in the Schwarzschild metric has been setup as an autonomous firstorder dynamical system, and it has been studied completely analytically. Of the three possible critical points in the flow, the one that is physically realistic behaves like the saddle point of the standard Bondi accretion problem. One of the two remaining critical points exhibits the strange mathematical behaviour of being either a saddle point or a centretype point, depending on the values of the flow parameters. The third critical point is always unphysical and behaves like a centretype point. The treatment has been extended to pseudoSchwarzschild flows for comparison with the general relativistic analysis.
